Personal injury law allows injured individuals to file a civil lawsuit and seek damages for losses resulting from an accident or incident. The purpose of personal injury law is to financially compensate the injured person after suffering harm due to someone else's negligence or intentional conduct. Personal injury rules apply to accidents, intentional acts, defective products, and defamation cases. These laws are derived from common law rules and statutes passed by legislatures, with the Restatement of Torts serving as a guidebook for personal injury laws.

For example, if a person is injured in a car accident due to another driver's negligence, they may be able to file a personal injury lawsuit to seek compensation for medical expenses, lost wages, and pain and suffering.